August 3, 2023 1 Comment

The Green Book is a set of guidelines issued by HM Treasury on how to appraise policies, programmes, and projects. Government departments and agencies use it to assess the costs and benefits of

July 23, 2023 0 Comments

In recent decades, global urbanisation has accelerated human population expansion, requiring more material resources. Construction uses 32% of natural resources (Yeheyis et al., 2012). However, this figure is lower than in the 1990s

May 2, 2023 0 Comments

Planning and maintaining control over projected expenditures is necessary for cost management in construction projects. This is relevant to all the project's knowledge domains. Actual expenditures are proportional to work completed; however, completed

April 30, 2023 0 Comments

Appraising transport business cases solely from the Value for Money (VFM) framework, without considering social value criteria, can lead to several disadvantages for rural areas. Some of these disadvantages are:Neglecting the social impact:

April 30, 2023 0 Comments

The 4Es model is a framework that can be used to evaluate public sector projects' Value for Money (VFM). The 4Es stand for Economy, Efficiency, Effectiveness, and Equity. Each of these elements can

October 3, 2022 0 Comments

Introduction Technologies are progressing rapidly, and there is a consequent lack of current components and devices, requiring industries to continuously update and modify current technologies to ensure their long-term use. As a result,

September 10, 2022 0 Comments

Purpose of cost management In light of these issues, this study aimed to shed light on the current costing practice and CW in the UK construction industry to build a framework that would

April 16, 2022 0 Comments

Leadership Approach in Civil Engineering Project Management To well manage construction projects, it is essential to have information on modern management and develop a clear understanding of the construction and Leadership Approach. Construction

April 15, 2022 0 Comments

Abandoned Railway Tracks These are the railway tracks that have not been in usage for a long time due to certain reasons, we can say these abandoned railways are disused railway tracks or

December 26, 2021 4 Comments

Estimate, Estimation, Civil Engineering, Cost Management, Whole Life Cycle Costing, Optimism Bias Optimism bias Optimism bias is the inclination of people to anticipate better compared to average results from their activities. Basically, Optimism

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